1545 Leland

John Leland (c.1506-1552)

 
Leland, the Father of English History, is credited with developing the use of original sources and the creation of our modern research-based history. 
 
In 1533 Henry VIII commissioned him to investigate the archival record of England’s greater ecclesiastical institutions, eventually leading to The laboryeuse Journey and Serche of J. Leylande for Englandes Antiquitees... re-edited by John Bale in 1549  (The Itinerary of John Leland). 
 
Leland had a pioneering role in antiquarianism and archaeology and his ideas remained current thanks to Camden, Speed et al through their reading and often mere repetition of Leland’s original observations.
 
 
From Welles to Glessenbyri about a 5. miles from north to south west.
Fyrst yn the toune over S. Andres water by S. John's, aboute a quarter of a mile out of Welles I passid over a litle broket, an arme of S. Andres water or Welles water:  And ther as I passid over it I saw hard on the lifte hand a stone bridge of one arche. This arme shortly after joynith yn the medowes with the principal part of Welles water.
And about half a mile beyond this bridg I passid over another brook caullid Coscumbe water a bigger streme then Welles water.
I lernid there, that Welles water metith with Coscumbe water on the right hond not far from the causey, and so go yn one botom to the mere.
There is a castelle on an hille in this medow about Coscumb water, cujus ruince adhuc apparent, communely caullid Fenne-Castel.
Cosecumbe broke risith a mile above Shepton, then to Shepton, then to Coscumb a mile.  Then to Dultingcote bridge a 3. miles.  Then about a mile dim. to the bridges yn the way betuixt Welles and Glessenbyri.
Then a mile or more of I cam to a praty streame of water  Sowey Water that at the stone bridge that I passid over cam doun by the lifte hand :  and hard above the bridge of one stone arche brake ynto 2. partes, and therby I passid over 2. litle stone bridgges.
Then about half a mile farther I cam to a few houses, and so enterid into a very great playne medow of a 6. or 7. miles about in cumpace by estimation, and so passid about a mile farther by a causey onto Hartelake bridg of one arche of stone.
As much of this playne medow or more as is weste of this causey as pontem de Hertlak is caullid Cranelmore.
That part that lyith by est of it, is caullid Seggemore.
The water of Sowey cummith thorough this bridge of stone, and risith in the rootes of Mendepe-hille by est at Doulting village owte of a welle bering the name of S. Aldelm.
A mile by est or ever this streame cum to Hartelak bridg ther is an arme cast out by force out of Sowey water, and a marsch walle made by mennys policy betwixt this arme forcid out and the principale streame of Sowey, and this waulle continuith to Hartelak bridge, and mile lower :  and then booth go soone after into the mere.  If this marsch waulle were not kept, and the canales of eche partes of Sowey river kept from abundance of wedes, al the plaine marsch ground at sodaine raynes wold be overflowen, and the profite of the meade lost.
From Harkeley bridg I passid by a litle bridge over the arme of Sowey.
As much of this more or medow ground that lyith beyond Hartelake bridge by west south west is caullid Glessenbyri-More.
From Hartlake bridg I passid by a low about a quarter of a mile :  and then I conscendid by a litle and a litle to hilly ground a hole miles ryding, and so enterid into Glessenbyri.
The chief streate and longgest of the towne of Glessenbyri lyith by est and weste, and at the market crosse in the west ende there is a streate by flat south and almost northe.
There is a market kept in Glessenbyry every weke on the Wensday.
Ther be 2. paroche chirchis yn Glessenbyri, S. John Baptiste on the north side of the principal streat of the toune.  This is a vary fair and lightsum chirch :  and the est part of it is very elegant and isled.
The body of the chirch hath . . . arches on eche side.  The quier hath 3. arches on eche side.
The quadrate tour for belles at the west end of the chirch is very high and fair.
Ther lyith on the north side of the quier one Richard Atwell that died circa annum D. 1472.  This Atwelle did much cost in this chirch, and gave fair housing that he had buildid in the tonne onto it.     In Latten called ad fontem.
Johanna wife to Atwelle lyith buried in a lyke marble tumbe on the south side of the quier.
Ther lyith one Gamel a gentilman in a fair tumbe in the south part of the transept of the chirch.
Briwetun river cummith from Briwetun x. miles of to the west part of the toun of Glessenbyri, and so rennith to the mere a 2. miles lower.
Or ever this river cum to Glessenbyri by a mile it cummith to a bridge of stone of a 4. arches communely caullid Pontperlus, wher men fable that Arture cast in his swerd.
The river brekith at this bridge ynto 2, partes, wherof the principalle goith to Glessenbyri.
The other goith thoroug low morisch grounde, and metith again with the principal streame or ever that it goith into the mere.
The mere is as at. high waters in winter a 4. miles in cum-   Ft pace, and when it is lest a 2. miles and an half, and most communely 3. miles.
This lak or mere is a good mile yn lenght: and at the ende of it toward west it cummith again in alveum^ and going about a mile it brekith ynto 2, amies, whereof the one goith to Highe-bridge, the other to Rookes-bridge, and so the armes goith a sundre to the by crekes.
 
 
In Transepto Eccl. in Merid. parted
Thomas Stawel miles.
Horologinm. Petrus Lightfote monachus fecit hoc opus.
Geffre Fromont Abbas G/aston.
Hugo Doctor. Theolog. fr. Walteri Monington Abb. Glaston.
 
In Bor. parte.
Edvardus de la Zouche monachus Glaston. cog. Edvardi 3.
Gnalterus More Abbas Glaston.
 
Epit. Joan Taunton Abb. Glaston.
Ut multo tandem sumptu multoque labore
  Fit Pastor jamjam commoda multa parat.
Rura colit Christi docet et praecepta Joannes,
  Mox animi exuvias condit in hoc tumulo.
 
Epit. Michaelis Ambresbyre Abbatis.
Qui serpentinas fraudes et vincla resolvit,
  Restituitque ovibus debit a rura suis:
Postquam turbida tranquillasset tempora saxo
  Ecce sub hoc Abbas integitur Michael.
 
Epit. Roberti Pedreton Abbatis Glaston.
Liberat oppressos Pedreton ab aere alieno,
  Demum hac composita pace quiescit humo.
Gualterus de Tantonia alias Hec Abbas Glaston ante imaginem Crucifixi.
  Hie fecit frontem Chori cum imaginibus l. id etss ubi stat Crucifixus.
Lectura antiqui operis ex dono Richardi Bere Abbatis Glaston.
  Gualterus Monington in Choro Abbas Glaston.
Hie fecit vol tarn Chori et Presbyterii et auxit longit.  Presbyterii 2. arcubus.
 
In Presbyterio,
Edmundus Senior in bar. parte.
Edmundus Irenside in merid, parte.
Arcturus in medio.
 
Epit. Arturii.
Hic jacet Arturns flos regum, gloria regni,
Quem mores, probitas commendant laude perenni.
Versus Henrici Swansey Abbatis Glaslon.
 
Infer, ad pedem ejusdem tumuli.
Arturi jacet hie conjux tumidata secunda
Quae meruit coelos virtutum prole secunda.
Inscript. in capite tumuli.
Henricus Abbas.
Crucifixi imago in capite tumuli.
Arturii imago ad pedes.
Crux super tumulum.
2. Leones in capite et duo ad pedes tumuli attingentes terres.
 
In Meridionali Insulae adjac. Presbyterio.
John Breynton Ab. Glaston.
Sepulchrum armati in lapide.
Joannes Selwod Ab. Glaston. ante cap. S. Andreae.
 
In Bor. Insula.
Joannes de Cantia Abb. Glaston. in alto tumulo.
 
In Navi Eccles,
Adam Sodbyri Abbas.
Mater ejus a laeva.
Pater a dextra.
Nicolaus From Abbas Glaston.
Fuit Paduae et in Basiliensi concilio.
Staford comes Devon, sub arcu in parte merid,
Richarde Bere Abbas Glaston: in meridion: insula navis Eccles.
 
In Capella S. Mariae a Bor. part. Chori in Sacello.
Joannes Biconel miles et Elizabeth.
Gil. Semar miles in eadem volta.
 
Gualterus Fromont abbat began the great haul. Gualter Monington next abbate to hym endid it.
Gualter Monington made to the midle parte the chapitre house.
John Chinok abbate his successor performid it, and ther is buried in sepulchro cum imagine alabastri.
This John Chinok buildid the cloyster, the dormitor, the fratery.
Abbate Adam gave a vij. great belles.
Richard Bere abbate buildid the new lodging by the great chambre [cau]llid the kinges lodging [in] the galery.
Bere buildid [the] new lodginges [for] secular pre[stes, and] clerkes of our [Lady.]
Abbate Beere buildid Edgares chapel at the est end of the chirch: But Abbate Whiting performid sum part of it.
Bere archid on bothe sides the est parte of the chirch that began to cast owt.
There be vj. goodly windowes in the top of eche side of the est part of the chirch. There were 4. of old tyme, sins 2. addid, and the presbyterie enlonggid by Gualter Monington abbate.
Bere made the volte o[f] the steple in the transepto, and under 2. arches like S. Andres crosse, els it had fallen.
Bere made a rich altare of sylver and gilt: and set it afore the high altare.
Bere cumming from his embassadrie out of Italie made a chapelle of our Lady de Loretta, joining to the north side of the body of the chirch.
He made the chapelle of the sepulcher in the southe end Navis ecclesie wherby he is buried sub plano marmore yn the south isle of the bodie of the chireh.
He made an almose house in the north part of the abbay for vij. or x. poore wymen with a chapel.
He made also the maner place at Sharpham in the parke a 2. miles by west from Gleston: it was afore a poore lodge.
Wyral Park lyith hard to Glaston by west.
Nordwood Park a mile by est from Glaston.  John Selwod abbat buildid a place there.
Pilton Park about a vj. miles from Glaston by est.
John Chinok abbate buildid a maner place ther.
Weston a litle maner Pl[ace . . . mile] west by Glaston.
Mere a fair old maner place 2. miles from Glaston by north.
Dameron a mene maner place a vij. miles west south west from Saresbyri in Wileshir.
Estbrent a 10. miles by north north west from Glaston a faire maner place.
Sturmestre Newton castelle in Dorsetshir, a 4. miles from Shaftesbyri.   Edmund Irenside gave it to Glaston.

 

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